Joists are spaced twelve or sixteen inches apart. They can be made up of either solid sawn lumber or engineered joists. Dimensional sawn lumber comes in 2×8, 2×10, and 2×12 sizes. The load will determine the necessary size they are required to carry and the distance they span. Engineered floor joists create a higher strength to weight ratio, can span longer distances and often create a straighter finished floor. In cases where a higher strength is necessary, by possible additional loads or openings in the floor, joist can be doubled or tripled to meet the requirements.The joists are then sheeted with plywood, oriented strand board, or solid wood planks. This allows for a continuous floor, where walls, occupants, and other items can be placed anywhere. The sheeting must be able to displace any point loads onto the joists, while minimizing bending. All joints must be offset and have a spleen or tongue and groove to ensure strength is not compromised. In some cases were the final occupants wish to have very little bending of the sheeting between joists, a subfloor of additional sheeting, or a thin concrete layer may be used arti mimpi
The above ground walls of a lightwood framed home are what make up the living space of the finished home. Typically eight feet in height however can also be taller where desired. The wall’s structural supports are the framing members or wall studs. Exterior walls are also sheeted for additional shear strength. The entire wall can be built laying flat on the floor, tilted up, and then fastened into place. Walls may need temporary supports until the entire building is complete.Wall studs that carry the majority of the loads are made up of 2 by 4 or 2 by 6 sized members. The later is used on exterior walls to allow for added insulation. The studs are evenly spaced every sixteen inches. They are also oriented to allow the maximum rigidity in the wall. One or two members lay flat at both the bottom and top of the wall. This again allows any loads to be distributed onto the floor below.